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1. Hyperforin, St. John’s Wort
Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort). It has antidepressant and anxiolytic properties and acts as a reuptake inhibitor of monoamines, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and of GABA and glutamate. It also antagonises the NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor and GABA receptors. St. John’s wort is sold as a supplement and appears in several overt the counter preparations. It should be avoided to prevent interference with your prescription medications.
2. Tiagabine, Gabatril
Tiagabine is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It is believed that the pharmacology is related to its ability to enhance the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Tiagabine binds to recognition sites associated with the GABA uptake carrier. It is thought that, by this action, tiagabine blocks GABA uptake into presynaptic neurons, permitting more GABA to be available for receptor binding on the surfaces of post-synaptic cells. Tiagabine's most common side effects include confusion, difficulty speaking clearly/stuttering, mild sedation, and in doses over 8 mg, a tingling sensation (paresthesia) in the body's extremities, particularly the hands and fingers. Tiagabine may induce seizures in those without epilepsy, especially if they are taking another drug which lowers the seizure threshold.
1. Murinson BB, Rizzo M. Improvement of stiff-person syndrome with tiagabine. Neurology. 2001 Jul 24;57(2):366. Link to article
GABA REUPTAKE INHIBITORS